Building houses in Canada: materials, technology, process


Canada is the world’s second-largest country with several climate zones. Not only the latitude and longitude, but also the proximity of the oceans, the presence of mountains, and many other factors influence the temperature here. The country’s main population and all major cities are located in areas with moderately cold winters and chilly summers, so detached houses in these provinces are constructed according to similar technology; the only difference is the insulation process. Let’s analyze the technology of construction of Canadian houses and the materials used.

What housing types are preferred in Edmonton and Vancouver?

There are some differences in the construction of houses in the most populated regions, and this is primarily due to differences in winter temperatures. Let’s take Edmonton and Vancouver as examples.

The first has a continental and dry climate, and the city is away from the ocean. The weather in Vancouver is temperate and humid, as the Atlantic Ocean is near. The average winter temperature in Edmonton is about -11°C, while in Vancouver it is +4°C; the difference is about 15°C.

Most of the houses in Canada have a concrete base and a wooden frame; they also use brick and siding as cladding. In colder regions, the cost of insulation is higher – you have to use more insulation, i.e. install energy-efficient windows. For instance, Edmonton’s popular Ecoline windows have three or two chambers and coated glass, while those designs installed in Vancouver, can have just one or two chambers, but theirglass always has an oxide coating. The window profile material is either PVC or wood.

Technologies of Canadian house construction

In Canada, every 9 out of 10 houses in the southern most populous provinces are built according to frame technology that uses mineral wool insulation. In northern areas (Alaska, Yukon), they build more expensive houses made of SIP-panels, whose main advantage is the high production speed.

The house building process according to frame technology can also be very different: some houses are built on-site by professionals, while others are partially or completely made in a factory, and then “fine-tuned” on the site. The ratio is about 85 to 15 in favor of the first.

Frame technology proved popular because of an important advantage: such a house is inexpensive and warm, which is a big plus for chilly Canadian winters. If you also install Ecoline windows somewhere in Edmonton or a more northern region, you’ll feel comfortable even in extreme cold. Heating bills in an energy-efficient house are lower than in other buildings, which is also very important.

It is believed that the house built on the site is of higher quality, which is why it is so popular. However, we think that factory-built houses are not inferior in this component.  Factory production techniques can be divided into three types:

·         Construction with partial use of factory components.

·         Construction of modular houses.

·         Installation of a fully finished factory house on the site.

In the first case, they bring a specific list of parts to the site, which are subsequently assembled into a single structure. These can be door and window frames, ceilings, roofing, floor joists, etc. This technology is of the mixed type.

In case of modular construction, panels of a certain width and length are produced at the factory, then delivered to the site and installed on an existing foundation with a crane. This method is fast and inexpensive, and allows you to build a house of various sizes and configurations. The technology is also used for high-rise construction.

The ready-made house is completed at the factory. It comes with electrics, plumbing, and even cabinets and other furniture at times. The building is mounted on a fixed steel chassis and delivered to the site with the foundation already prepared. After the installation, they wire up the house and get it ready for use. In such homes, they often install Ecoline windows from Edmonton, which are said to be highly energy-efficient. The main drawback is the lack of individuality: all buildings look generic. But it’s fast, convenient and cheap.

What kind of materials are used?

Frame production in Canada most often uses wood, and as for cladding – they use siding of various kinds. Why is wood so popular? It has several advantages over other materials:

·         Low cost: it is cheaper than other materials, even metal. So, with frame technology, such a house comes out cheaper than others.

·         Low weight: wood is a lightweight material, which helps save on foundation production.

·         Quality thermal characteristics: in a wooden house, no cold bridges are created; it takes less energy to heat it.

·         Eco-friendliness: it is a natural material, harmless to people.

Besides, the wooden frame is perfectly suited for cladding with siding or facade brick, and it allows you to build houses without limiting your imagination. Building houses from other materials, such as stone or brick, costs more and takes longer, so they are less popular. Although there are advantages (appearance, durability, etc.) in using them as well.

The Best Window Styles for Vancouver Homeowners

The Best Window Styles for Vancouver Homeowners

Are you looking for new windows for your house in Vancouver? If so, we bet it is pretty challenging. New units should look great, be energy efficient, provide excellent ventilation and complement the design of your residence. But with so many features to consider, the first step is to choose the right window style to bring you all the benefits down the road.

Our team has contacted Ecoline, Vancouver window replacement experts, to find out which styles are the most efficient and widespread among homeowners in the region. Moreover, we have also gathered some information regarding the pricing of different window styles to make it easier for you to decide what fits you best. Interested? Keep reading.
Casement Windows

Casement windows are units that have the sash (or panel) attached to their frame by hinges that are installed on the side. This window style opens as hinged doors do. Casement windows are a common choice for many Vancouver homeowners due to numerous advantages:

  • High energy efficiency
  • Ease of clean
  • Low maintenance
  • Excellent ventilation
  • Ease of operation
  • High versatility
  • Great security and hardware choice

Moreover, casements usually go with vinyl window frames. Vinyl is known for its durability, moisture resistance, and exceptional insulating properties. 

Sliding Windows

Do you have a fantastic view outside? Want to contemplate it every day, but your old units mess everything up? Then it is time to consider replacing them with new sliding windows.

Sliding windows (also called sliders/gliders) have a simplistic design. They are made of two or more sashes within a single frame and roll horizontally from left to right or vice versa. Hence, homeowners can operate the windows effortlessly, even with one hand, opening or closing these units as much as it is needed.

Because they are wide, gliders are a perfect fit for large spaces. In addition, they will provide an unobstructed view and good ventilation, something other window styles lack because of their separate panes.

Moreover, thanks to a large glass area, sliding windows can significantly boost the daylight amount coming to your rooms. As a result, sliders are super popular among Vancouver homeowners and bring you everything you want from new windows.

Picture Windows

A picture window is a big unit that is fixed, meaning that this window does not open up. Picture windows are here to provide homeowners with a clear and unobstructed view outside. While it does not offer ventilation, this style has many benefits to count:

  • The unobstructed view outside is the first reason many Vancouver homeowners buy these units.
  • Easier maintenance. Since these windows don’t have any moving parts, it is easy to clean and maintain them in their best conditions.
  • Perfect insulation. These windows are super energy efficient. Since picture windows are fixed, the heat does not go out. At the same time, cold air cannot get inside. This helps to cut on energy bills and enjoy cold during summers and warm during winters.
  • Excellent natural lighting. Picture windows offer a large area of glass so you can enjoy a lot of sunlight coming to your space, brightening up the rooms. 
  • No allergens. While these units allow sunlight in, they also keep out allergens. This is a great window pick for people who need to keep out bad air due to allergies.

Popular Window Styles: Pricing Comparison

Well, price is the first thing every homeowner looks at when shopping for new windows. And it is understandable. A penny saved is a penny earned. But in the case of windows, the cheapest units might give you more troubles than benefits. Overall, new windows can’t be cheap due to materials, labour force and other things being quite expensive. Treat getting new windows as making a long-term investment into your property. But enough talking – here is a table representing a typical price range for the window styles discussed above.

Basement$535 – $1,022$394 – $1057$315 – $1518
Bathroom$446 – $1,032$394 – $1033$388 – $1242
Bedroom$444 – $1193$437 – $1521$226 – $2324
Bonus room$676 – $1134$820 – $1248$420 – $2305
Dining room$550 – $1348$669 – $1957$316 – $2072
Family room$605 – $1999$490 – $1131$354 – $2661
Foyer$858 – $1999$465 – $778$338 – $1552
Front$583 – $1014$785 – $968$359 – $2933
Garagen\a$391 – $1085$334 – $1536
Kitchen$329 – $1356$394 – $1595$202 – $2179
Living room$484 – $1614$433 – $2327$226 – $2898
Master bedroom$545 – $1304$452 – $1810$335 – $2370
Nook$549 – $1149$658 – $1142$337 – $2440

How to Find the Best Window Company?

Okay, so you have decided to replace your old units with new ones. You have selected the window style, frame and other add-ons. So what to do next? Of course, find a reliable window company to install your new units. And before we proceed, we should warn you – do not go DIY. Installing a new window requires a lot of experience and expertise, and if you have no needed skills, you may mess up the process and even damage your new windows. We highly recommend hiring professionals. But how do you know the company is trustworthy and reliable? Here is a checklist to go through before dealing with any window installer in Vancouver:

  • Make sure the company follows CSA guidelines and your local building codes
  • Check whether they offer you Energy Star and NAFS-11 tested units
  • Clarify what the warranty covers
  • Check online reviews and reputation
  • Ask your friends and family for references
  • Make sure you get the best quote

Manufacturing windows at the factory

window factory

The manufacture of PVC windows is a complex process, requiring the use of advanced equipment and quality control at all stages of production. Compliance with the production technology alone ensures that the final product meets the standards of environmental friendliness and has high-performance characteristics. A lot of people wonder about the window manufacturing process at the factory. We will try to answer this question in our article using the most popular PVC constructions as an example.

Main phases of production of windows made of PVC and other materials

The window manufacturing process involves multiple steps. Here are the basic ones:

  Designing a construct.

  Cutting and armoring the profile. Filling.

  Welding window frames and sashes.

  Mounting fittings.

  Installing double-glazed windows.

  Checking the finished window for quality.

Now let’s take a closer look at each of the steps.


Sure enough, there are some standard designs used to make most of the goods, but some companies need custom windows, so in these cases, new designs are made. For this, they use special software. In this program, they enter the dimensions and other parameters of future products, such as type of profile, the shape of double-glazed window, the types and number of fittings, etc.

Once all the data are entered, the tool will automatically calculate the amount of material required to produce a single unit and estimate the cost of the window. This considerably speeds up the design process and simplifies it.

Cutting and armoring

This is the stage where they work with the profile and cut the frames and sashes to the right size. A traditional piece of equipment used for cutting and parting is a double head saw that cuts from both sides at once. With this technology, you can achieve the exact cut geometry, which is especially important since the subsequent welding process makes the joints smooth and tight.

Once cut, they arm the profile, thus increasing its strength and insuring against deformation.

Condition of armoring:

  They use galvanized steel. Its thickness for standard window sizes is 1.4-1.5 mm or higher for larger products.

  The reinforcement steel should have a regular n-shape and a bend at the sash. 

  The workpiece should be reinforced solidly, from edge to edge.

  The reinforcement steel must have a regular n-shape and have a bend at the sash.


This is the stage where they drill holes to install fittings, fasteners, condensate drains. Special attention should be paid to drainage devices that automatically drain water from the construct into the outside environment.


After milling, the workpieces are sent for welding – typically on a 4-head welder (although other types of equipment can also be used). The welding is required to heat the profile edges to the melting temperature of the material used, which is 230-260⁰C (440-500 ℉) for plastic. Next, they joint the edges.

A four-head unit helps you to connect all four corners simultaneously so that the frame geometry is close to perfection. Once welded, the construct is conveyed via a traveling belt for deseaming.

What is important is that seam durability should be close to that of the base material. For this, they check the corners for rupture. There are standards for each profile thickness, so it is best if the figures are twice as high as the standard ones.

Installing seals and fittings

Next, they proceed to the installation of fittings and seals. The latter is just as important as other window elements. Heat and sound insulation – the main characteristics for all windows – depends on the quality of the seals and their installation. You need to ensure that the seals retain their properties when exposed to extreme temperatures.

Through fittings, we open and close windows, install mosquito nets, and ventilate the room. So, the service life of the window depends on the quality of its installation, because the fittings break down the fastest.

In addition to the basic fittings, you can also add:

  Handle rotation lock.

  Anti-burglary elements: locking pins, strikes, etc.

  Handles with locks to prevent children from falling out.

  Step openers, etc.

Installing double-glazed units

Not only window glass helps to provide visibility and limit airflow from outside, but also to save energy. For this purpose, double-glazed units with a tin-silver coating are produced. The glass surface is first coated with a composition, then the glass is installed, and then argon is injected into the air chamber. For conventional windows, the production task is somewhat simplified, which lowers the price.

If the insulated glazing unit is installed incorrectly, the sash may be skewed, which will affect the service life and quality of the functions. During installation, the insulating glazing must be properly wedged with welted inserts and laying. Wedged glazing units are fixed by means of glazing beads.

In the final stage, the finished product is subjected to quality control and shipped to the customer.

Based on this information, we can conclude that this is a complex, multi-step process, requiring the qualifications of workers and the use of modern equipment. Following the technology guarantees a good quality of the final product.

Top Five Largest Oil Companies in the US

Top Five Largest Oil Companies in the US

Despite concerns about climate change, crude oil is still the dominant energy resource. Large corporations produce billions of barrels daily, with the US leading the way. The biggest players have managed to generate revenue despite the pandemic. Discover the biggest producers in the US today.

  1. Chevron: The Giant

This biggest company gets a third of its production from the US. Some of its fields in California have been active for over a century. The company keeps up with the latest technologies to stimulate declining reservoirs in the region. For example, it floods them with steam.

Wells in the Gulf of Mexico account for the largest share of production. In the future, it will only intensify as the company has launched several big projects like Big Foot and Stampede. Finally, the company gets a portion of its oil and gas from the middle of the continent — Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado. 

The Permian field, used since the 1920s, is the most famous. It is the centerpiece of growth. Across both sides of the Basin, it holds 1.7 million not acres. The size of untapped reserves is estimated to reach 11.2 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).

  1. EOG Resources: Shale Growth

This company has the third-largest volume, but it is the biggest shale producer. Around 90% of output comes from tight formations across 48 states. The core field is Eagle Ford. The company is poised to drill over 7,600 new wells in the region, which should give several billion extra barrels of oil and NGLs. 

In the Permian, the company is expected to create over 6,800 additional wells. It also produces oil in the Rocky Mountain area. By the beginning of 2020, the company was ready to achieve a 15% compound annual growth rate. These plans were detailed by the pandemic, but EOG Resources is still the fastest-growing company in the US.

  1. ConocoPhillips: Old And New

This giant pumps oil and NGLs from fields in 48 states. The company has control over 10.4 million net acres across the midsection. It is also the biggest producer in Alaska. In recent years, exploratory drilling in the region has been bolstered by the government’s tax policy. As a result, the local output is rising.

Still, the core locations for the company are Eagle Ford, Bakken, and Permian (in descending order of volume). In terms of growth, Eagle Ford and Permian are the most promising. In the coming years, production of the latter is projected to skyrocket at 60% CAGR. 

The company is combining the old with the new. It drills in Alaska and exploits shale at the same time. It is doubtful the company will ever compete with Chevron, but it is still projected to expand steadily.

  1. Pioneer Natural Resources: Narrow Focus

This is the only major oil stock without international operations. Moreover, the company is now getting rid of most of its local assets, such as Eagle Ford. Pioneer Natural Resources has shifted focus to the Permian (in particular, its Midland Basin side). It is the largest producer in this core region. 

In the coming years, the company is expected to engage over 20,000 new drilling locations. The goal of the current strategic plan is 1+ million BOE/D by 2026, over 70% of which will be oil. Over the next decade, the company is expected to achieve a CAGR of over 20%.

The pandemic is bound to derail this ambitious plan. However, low prices are not the only obstacle. The Permian region production is growing so fast that infrastructure providers fail to keep up. 

Pipeline capacity may be the biggest barrier, as it drives prices upwards. However, the company has partnered up with logistics and service providers. At the moment, it has enough sand for its fracking wells and natural gas processing.

  1. Marathon Oil: Shale Expansion

The past few years have been incredibly transformative for Marathon Oil. The company has shifted its focus from Canada and Libya to local production. It has acquired more land in the Permian Basin and bolstered its position in the STACK. The biggest fields in descending order of volume are the Eagle Ford, the Bakken, Oklahoma, and Permian. 

Marathon Oil has plans to expand drilling in all four areas to stoke energetic growth. So far, the strategy has delivered impressive results. It is one of the fastest-growing shale producers in the country.

The Bottom Line

These five companies are at the forefront of oil and gas production in the US. Thanks to the exploitation of vast shale resources, growth has been substantial. Despite the pandemic and the collapse of oil prices, there is still a lot of untapped potential. As the demand recovers, these companies are expected to resume growth.

What Attracts People to the Oil Industry?

What Attracts People to the Oil Industry?

The energy sector is one of the most attractive fields for young professionals. Despite the growing concerns about carbon, crude oil is still the primary resource for humanity. Renewable energy is growing, but its pace is still slow. Oil will keep you busy, and salaries in the industry are impressive. Discover seven major advantages of jobs in the oil and gas sector.

A Gigantic Global Industry

This vibrant industry allows you to tap into the global resources, and its production is always in demand. People need fuel for their cars, heating for their houses, and the petrochemical industry is massive. Crude oil is used in countless products, from soap to pharmaceuticals. In this rapidly expanding field, innovations are in demand, and new methods of working are being implemented all the time.

  1. Different Work Surroundings

Office drudgery is not everyone’s cup of tea. Do you crave something different and more flexible? Oil and gas production needs professionals who work in office buildings and on drilling sites. However, only some employees spend time on rigs offshore. 

In your career, you may never need to touch heavy machinery. If you hate offices, there are plenty of jobs in labs. Choose the most suitable and pleasant work environment. Such diversity is what few industries offer. And if you like physical labor, you can still work on the rig and have a long vacation!

  1. Vacation Half of the Year

This sounds like the ultimate dream, but it is true for some jobs in the oil and gas industry. Personnel on rigs work long hours for extended periods, and the duration varies. For example, you may have to work 12 hours per day for 6 weeks. Then, you are given an equal amount of time to relax. This means you work just 50% of a year. Meanwhile, office workers still have typical 9 to 5 schedules. 

  1. Really High Salaries

Fossil fuels are usually associated with big money, and this is true! Remuneration in the oil industry is very decent in many countries. For example, in the UK, experienced workers get over £50,000 per year. A gas engineer may start earning £30,000 straight after qualification. 

Career opportunities are plentiful. As you rise in the hierarchy, income turns from decent to spectacular. For example, drilling consultants are some highest-paid experts. Their annual income may exceed £150,000. Would this suit you?

  1. Tech-Intensive Industry

Are you keen on the latest technologies? The oil and gas industry is a great choice. Here, companies adopt novelties quickly. They implement state-of-the-art technology to boost production and quality. As an employee, you will be learning new methods all the time. Your knowledge and competence will grow quickly, making you a more valuable specialist.

  1. Many Opportunities to Apply Educational Background

Concerns about carbon and climate change are rising. The industry is looking for people who will help it design more sustainable fuels. Professionals with a background in environmental studies have plenty of opportunities. For them, finding work is particularly easy. Environmental protection is an issue that will always be relevant. Today, new solutions must be developed quickly, and companies are willing to pay good money for them.

  1. You Will See the World

Do you like traveling? Oil is in demand on all continents. Look beyond your homeland — you may have fantastic opportunities for an international career. Once you have gained experience, the world is your oyster. With a decent resume, you may be hired by any oil producer. There are onshore and offshore jobs in many parts of the world.

  1. Free Training And Other Perks

In this industry, development opportunities are particularly abundant. Companies invest in multiple programs for their employees because they want to retain the best talent. In many corporations, you will be offered generous perks. These include bonuses, passion plans, dental care, child care support, private health care, etc. 

How to Get Started 

If the oil and gas industry is attractive to you, start acquiring the necessary skills. The first prerequisite is a degree in a relevant subject. For example, mechanical and electrical engineering is in high demand. It is also crucial to be knowledgeable about health and safety procedures. You may start by working in a smaller company, gain experience, and grow. 

The oil sector has been hit by the pandemic. However, the prices will eventually recover, and fossil fuels will still be in high demand. Overall, if you need an exciting job where brainpower is fused with technology, this gigantic industry is worth considering.

What Should Oil Companies Do About Ecology?

What Should Oil Companies Do About Ecology?

Oil and gas sites pollute the environment, hurting wildlife, people, and nature. If you live close to a rig or processing plant, the view is depressing. Ventilating the indoors brings more toxic particles into the house. No windows will protect you from contaminated water. You come in contact with harmful chemicals every day. 

Immune defenses inevitably decline, but this is only one dimension of the damage. What should companies do to minimize the impact? Here are the key issues to resolve on a global scale. 

  1. Polluted Air and Water

The industry does not do enough to keep the air and water clean. People who live close to oil and gas-producing facilities are exposed to contaminants daily. This causes a range of respiratory problems and other health issues. 

Across the US alone, there are 1.3 million such locations. Wells and processing plants are key contributors to air pollution. When fossil fuels burn, talk to gases are released. According to the UN, polluted air is one of the biggest killers.

Fracking is one of the dirtiest methods of oil production. In the process, chemicals get into drinking water, causing birth defects, liver damage, and cancer in the local population. Wastewater leaks to lagoons, ponds, and aquifers underground. Clearly, these methods must be improved.

  1. Harmful Spills

Producers must take serious measures to prevent spills. They kill wildlife. One of the most famous accidents happened in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Back then, almost 70,000 square miles of sea surface were contaminated, with around 1 million seabirds, 5,000 marine mammals, and 1,000 sea turtles killed.

Minor spills also cause damage. When oil is being extracted onshore, lubrication inside the well is ensured through the injection of drilling fluids. Instead of being captured underground, they are often splashed around the site. 

Unfortunately, the frequency of spills has been rising. In 2018, over 2,800 cases were registered in Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. Animals come in direct contact with harmful fluids or inhale and ingest the chemicals. These damage their internal organs, causing cancer, reproductive failure, and suppression of the immune system.

  1. Destruction of Wildlife

Companies prioritize profits over wildlife habitats. Birds find it hard to communicate because of loud noises, vehicles, and human movement. These operations also disrupt nesting and breeding. Besides, the infrastructure also gets in the way, fragmenting natural habitats for many animals. For example, the pronghorn antelope and mule deer in Wyoming are both under threat.

  1. Climate Change 

Today, scientists are developing technologies to capture CO2, but we are yet to see practical results. The burning of fossil fuels releases harmful greenhouse emissions into the air, which trap heat from the sun and cause the temperature to rise. This results in prolonged wildfires, and bigger severity of hurricanes and heatwaves.

Carbon dioxide is generated by burning released by everything from vehicles to production plans. Meanwhile, fracking releases methane into the atmosphere. Overall, this industry has the dirtiest emissions.

  1. Ruining of Landscapes

Infrastructure for oil and gas production damages the land. The creation of roads, facilities, and well pads requires the operation of bulky equipment. Pristine wilderness and vegetation are destroyed, and there is no way to reverse this harm. 

After these sites are abandoned, recovery will take hundreds of years. As a result of erosion, flooding and landslides become more frequent. The ground surface is destroyed, and wildlife habitats are fragmented.

  1. Less Tourism

Visitors are also put off by oil and gas production infrastructure. Families on vacation, hikers, hunters, and birders all go into the wilderness —  public lands and national parks — to experience the pristine beauty of nature. They do not expect constant noise, busy roads, and oil tanks. As a result, local communities suffer as tourism declines. 

  1. Light Pollution

Lights on production sites are so intense they can be seen from space. The main source of energy is the flaring of gas and storage sites. For bees, this is extremely dangerous. The light disrupts their pollination patterns. They cannot sleep, feed and reproduce normally. As a result, plants dwindle

Final Words

In recent years, the oil industry has seen a barrage of lawsuits. Its business is strongly associated with climate change. Natural habitats and beautiful landscapes vanish, while air and water pollution is detrimental to humans and animals. Clearly, something needs to change, as the damage is irreversible.

Many Oil Companies in the US Are Facing Bankruptcy: True or False?

Many Oil Companies in the US Are Facing Bankruptcy: True or False?

In 2020, oil demand plummeted to historic lows. Producers struggled to find storage for the unwanted barrels. While Saudi Arabia and Russia kept flooding the world with excess oil, companies in the US were in dire straits. They were dealing with a double black swan. Will they be able to recover?

The Worst Year for Crude?

When oil prices fall below a certain level, producers make a loss. This is particularly true for shale oil production. Oil is extracted from tighter layers, which makes the process more expensive by definition. In 2020, for the first time since 1983, US crude for May delivery turned negative. This was the worst day the oil market had ever had.

The devastating pandemic caused demand to fall by 30% globally.  According to Artem Abramov, head of shale research at Rystad Energy, “$30 is already quite bad, but once you get to $20 or even $10, it’s a complete nightmare”. While the prices have since recovered to over $40, they are hardly impressive compared to the highs of previous years. 

Too Much Debt

The problem with unlucky producers is their optimism. They were too reckless with borrowing during the good times. Then, companies with too much debt had to close down. This was the survival of the fittest. Nobody knows what the future holds. The following estimates from Rystad Energy should help you understand the prospects:

  1. When Oil Costs $20 per Barrel

If such a low price persisted, 500+ American companies would go under by the end of 2021. This concerns both exploration and production.

  1. When Oil Costs $10 per Barrel

At this price, the number of bankruptcies would double, surpassing 1,000. Very few US E&P companies with debt can survive in such conditions. The majority would end up filing Chapter 11 or considering strategic opportunities.

As you can see, impending bankruptcy is a reality for many US producers. The problems are particularly acute for those who have been borrowing heavily. The shale industry has been hit the hardest because of the nature of oil extraction.

String of Closures

2020 became the biggest year of oil bankruptcies since 2016 when the crisis was caused by a shale downturn. Back then, 70 companies ceased to exist. The latest string of restructurings includes names like Oasis Petroleum Inc and Lonestar Resources US Inc. 

According to Haynes and Boone, by September, 36 debt-laden companies owing 51 billion dollars collectively went bankrupt. In comparison with the events of 2016, each of them was more heavily in debt. Five years ago, almost twice as many firms owed $56 billion in total. In addition to producers, 37 oilfield service providers have now gone out of business.

Drawbacks of Shale

Shale companies have been the driver of explosive growth for US oil production. Their output accounts for the majority of the 13-million-barrel daily output. However, to stay afloat and continue growing, producers have to continue drilling more and more wells. 

In this industry, wells start to decline more quickly. This explains why so many companies have borrowed capital to support their operations. Such is the nature of the business — drilling never stops. According to the bankruptcy report by Haynes and Boone, a considerable number of oil producers are expected to file for bankruptcy protection throughout 2021.

A Broader Perspective

But what about non-crisis years, you may ask? In 2019, 33 bankruptcies were registered in the first three quarters. In comparison with 2018, this showed a 50% growth. Still, the second quarter of 2020 saw more cases than in any period since 2016. According to Chris Duncan, a research analyst at Brandes Investment Partners, this wave will continue unless a sustained recovery of the prices is observed.

The Grim Reality

The coronavirus pandemic has caused a slew of bankruptcies in the US oil production sector. In comparison with the previous crises, each of the vanishing companies was more heavily in debt. As wells decline more rapidly, producers need to invest in drilling all the time. This explains why so many US-based companies are on the verge of disappearing.

5 Interesting Facts About the Gulf Canada Company

5 Interesting Facts About the Gulf Canada Company

Have you heard about the Canadian oil and gas giant? Originally known as British American Oil, Gulf Canada has been in business since 1906. For over 100 years, it has been supplying the country with energy resources. Still, it is less famous than Chevron or Shell. Outside Canada, this brand is mainly familiar to oil industry experts. 

Still, the company has a fascinating history. The story of its evolution is also confusing due to multiple mergers and acquisitions. There are so many names and locations. Here are five essential facts about the company and its activities today. 

  1. Many Names, One Company

This energy provider has been named differently over the many decades of its existence. This causes a lot of confusion, and consumers are understandably puzzled. Let’s begin with the origins. Originally, in 1906, Gulf Canada Resources Limited was incorporated as the British American Oil Company Limited. 

Over the next 60 years, its name was unchanged. Then, the British American Oil company limited was bought by an American corporation. This buyer was Gulf Oil Corp. The result of the merger was called Gulf Oil Canada Limited. 

So, what about Gulf Canada Ltd.? you may ask. This name became official 9 years later — in 1978. In another 9 years, in 1987, the name was changed once more. The company became known as Gulf Canada Resources Limited. Today, it is a giant with diverse interests. They go far beyond oil. The brand distributes natural gas, distills spirits, produces pipelines, and sells various forest products. 

  1. Was There Anything British about the British-American Oil Company?

Hardly! The founder of the company was born in Welland, Ontario. Albert Leroy Ellsworth born in 1876 established his firm in Toronto, across the ocean from the UK. By that time he had worked at a refinery in New York for 9 years. 

The company was officially registered on October 17th, 1906. Its first office building was at the corner of King and Yonge Streets in Toronto. As for the ‘British’ in the name… We have not been able to find any connections. 

  1. The Little Egypt Bump Controversy

Big corporations are known to cook their books time after time. Do you remember Enron? The Little Egypt Bump was the name of an accounting strategy that caused quite a stir. In 1985, the company used it to make a few corrections to its reports concerning the purchasing activities. The trick did not go unnoticed. 

The corporation was motivated by its desire to take advantage of the national tax legislation. The illicit accounting behavior allowed it to circumvent the rules that applied to partnerships. This caused a scandal so big that the head of the opposition John Turner made a dramatic official announcement. 

In Parliament, the politician declared that the company had deprived local taxpayers of 1 billion dollars. This loss equaled the lost tax revenue. However, other sources claimed the cost was half as big. The former federal deputy minister of finance was alleged to have been involved. He had left his position in the government to work alongside the Reichmann family during the negotiations.

  1. Why Did the Canadian Gulf Company Disappear?

Canadian Gulf Company was once a subsidiary of the Gulf Oil Corporation. Until 1956, it operated independently. Then, it was merged with British American Oil. In exchange, the former subsidiary gained a controlling interest. The result of the merger was a giant. It became the second-biggest producer of oil and the biggest holder of gas reserves in the country. 

  1. In How Many Countries Can You Find Gulf’s Products?

The geographic coverage is truly impressive. The company has been working on its brand identity for over 100 years. At the moment, you may find its products in over 100 countries. Globally, it is one of the oldest and most famous producers of oil and related products in the world. The brand is committed to development and growth, which is reflected in its impressive expansion.

Gas stations with the company’s recognizable orange logo are found on different continents. The brand is also famous for its support of motorsport and the Le Mans 24Hrs. The sponsorships include race teams like the famous Aston Martin Racing Le Mans. 

The Bottom Line

Admittedly, Gulf is among the biggest energy brands in the world. Its history is rich, and the future is robust. The company is still growing and looking for more partners and new territories.